The refugee phenomenon is a major force in international politics. This is more so in sub-Saharan Africa where refugees are major actors in the affairs of their home and host countries. But, are refugees just victims of insecurity or also major causes of insecurity? Mogire analyses how and why refugees, victims of insecurity caused by persecution and the many incessant conflicts which continue unabated, have come to be viewed by scholars and practitioners as security threats. Using Kenya and Tanzania as empirical case studies, this volume examines the nature of this threat, its projection and responses. Moreover, it highlights how, if at all, these threats are different or similar to other security threats faced by these countries.
The scope and frequency of catastrophes, natural or man-made, are mounting. In 2008, more than 240,500 fatalities were counted, due to 311 natural catastrophes and man-made disasters. These numbers are unprecedented. It is to be expected that a mounting number of victims will look for financial compensation in the aftermath of future catastrophes. As the author of this ground-breaking book points out, there are as many sets of compensation mechanisms as there are countries. In a prodigious move to remedy this situation, she examines whether it is possible to find a combination of compensation mechanisms (i.e., a compensation model) that provides the most comprehensive and efficient financial solution for the victims of a natural catastrophe, a large-scale terrorist attack, and/or a man-made disaster - and, if so, what such a program would look like. In the process she deals exhaustively with such elements as the following: -the type of victims that disasters can cause; -safety regulation versus liability law; -insurability of catastrophes; -compensation funds; -capital market instruments; -types of government intervention; -defining terrorism for the purpose of compensation; and -preventive incentives as an element of efficient compensation. Because economic efficiency is an unavoidable factor in the compensation of catastrophe victims, the author relies primarily on a law and economics perspective in order to find an efficient and comprehensive model that is workable in practice and that takes into account the legal and cultural situation in the various countries. Once she has developed this model, she compares it with actual programs in Belgium, France, the Netherlands, and the United States of America - countries carefully chosen to represent a reasonably full variety of possible solutions. This comparison of real world solutions allows her to explain why each is inefficient and to define real and necessary conditions for policy change. This book shows that amelioration of the current compensation solutions for disaster victims is indeed a possibility. In a heated yet often poorly informed debate, it offers clarity and insights regarding the financial compensation for victims of catastrophes which, in addition to raising academic interest, are certain to help build a framework for future policymakers and lawmakers faced with shaping compensation programs for catastrophe victims.
Victims and Values joins history and ethics, conducting a timely inquiry into conscience and politics. Mindful of William James's notion that ethics must be grounded in the historical situation, this book examines fundamental ambiquities, dichotomies, and contradictions that we experience about the worth of our own suffering and that of others. In particular, it analyzes how victims make a powerful claim upon contemporary conscience and politics. Amato distances himself equally from those who deny suffering all substantive meaning and those who fashionably transform it into self-righteous identities and political rhetorics and ideologies. Amato's hope is that each person will be able to take measure of the suffering of others, while still remaining able to value his own suffering. After distinguishing pain from suffering, Amato starts his work with the assumption that humanity must interpret and give meaning to its pains and sufferings. Amato examines the fundamental place of suffering, sacrifice, and victims in Greek and Christian cultures. Reaching the central object of his study, the modern mind, Amato shows how the reformist world view of the eighteenth century philosopher sought to reduce suffering to a matter of rational calculation and how the progressive views of the nineteenth century dedicated the most profound energies of society and state to the elimination of human suffering. Ironically, in the twentieth century this resulted in an increasingly hedonistic society that is preoccupied with suffering and its rights, victims and their claims. Historians, philosophers, political scientists, theologians, and lay people will all find a lively forum in Amato's work.
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